Q.3: Differentiate between parliamentary system and presidential system of government. Give reasons why India choose Parliamentary form of government.


In a representative democracy or Indirect democracy, the people elect representatives to deliberate and decide on legislation. The representative democracy/government can be classified into two types such as in parliamentary form of government and presidential democracy form of government.


Parliamentary System of Government

  • There are two executives: nominal executives (head of state) and real executives (head of government)
  • The nominal executive is the head of state e.g. President while the real executive is the Prime Minister, who is the head of government.
  • Majority party rule
  • Collective responsibility
  • Political Homogeneity
  • Double membership (minister is a part of executive and legislature)
  • Leadership of prime minister
  • Fusion of powers
  • Countries with such a system include Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom as well as Portugal.
  • The Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary form of government, both at the Centre and in the States.
  • Articles 74 and 75 deal with the parliamentary system of government at the Union level and Articles 163 and 164 contain provisions with regard to the States.
  • Executive is responsible to the legislature for its policies and acts.

Presidential System of Government

  • There is only one executive.
  • President and Legislature elected separately for a fixed term.
  • Non-responsibility
  • Political homogeneity may not exist
  • Single membership
  • Domination of President
  • No dissolution of Lower House
  • Separation of powers
  • In this system, the President is both head of state and government, e.g. USA, South Korea etc.

Reasons for Adopting Parliamentary System in India:

  • Familiarity with the system since the British Rule.
  • Preference to more responsibility in India in contrasting to presidential system of America.
  • India needs to avoid the conflict between Legislative and Executives.
  • India’s heterogenous plural society suits to Parliamentary system.


The present parliamentary system has been tried and tested for nearly 70 years. It can be reformed thoroughly to remove the challenges thrown up by it. We should ensure a system of government whose leaders can focus on governance rather than on staying in power. In turn, each and every citizen of India get benefitted from the government.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.


More Posts

Send Us A Message